Strep throat vs. viral sore throat
Strep throat is caused by a type of bacteria called group A strep (GABHS). The pain of strep throat often feels the same as sore throats caused by other bacteria or by viruses. The important difference is that strep infections may cause rare but serious complications such as heart damage or rheumatic (scarlet) fever. The vast majority of throat infections are viral and therefore not strep. Approximately five to 15 percent of throat infections are caused by strep bacteria. Some bacterial infections require antibiotics, whereas the best treatment for viral sore throat is rest and liquids.
- Swollen, red tonsils, often with a white or light-colored coating
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Body aches
- Runny nose or cough
A clinician swabs the tonsils and sends the sample to a laboratory where it is tested for GABHS bacteria. Test results are usually available within one to two hours. If symptoms are consistent with those for a viral infection, a throat culture is not needed. If a throat swab is positive for GABHS, you will be contacted by a clinician.
Other kinds of strep bacteria may be present in culture, but these do not necessarily need antibiotics. Depending on the severity of illness, the clinician may want to further discuss symptoms and appropriate treatment
Safe use of antibiotics
Antibiotics should only be taken when prescribed. Overuse of antibiotics can give rise to bacterial strains that are resistant to antibiotics and therefore more difficult to treat. Antibiotics can also lead to other problems such as yeast infections or diarrhea. Rarely, people experience allergic reactions to antibiotics. When taking antibiotics, remember to:
- Inform the clinician of any allergies and all medications currently being taken.
- Take antibiotics according to the instructions and for the full time specified, even if symptoms subside before treatment is completed. Patients who stop earlier are more likely to relapse or develop complications.
- Contact a clinician if any side effects occur during treatment.
To avoid catching or passing illnesses that can lead to a sore throat:
- Wash hands often
- Avoid touching the eyes, nose, and mouth
- Cough or sneeze into a tissue and then throw it away
- Eat healthily and stay well-rested
- Avoid close contact with people who are sick
- Don’t smoke and avoid exposure to secondhand smoke
- Stay indoors as much as possible on high pollution days
Treating a sore throat
- Drink plenty of liquids
- Gargle with warm salt water (one teaspoon of salt in one cup of hot water) every few hours to help with pain
- Cough drops, or hard candy can moisten a dry, irritated throat
- Sore throat lozenges or sprays to numb the throat
- Use a vaporizer or hot shower steam to breathe in moist heat
- Take ibuprofen or acetaminophen for pain as directed. Avoid using aspirin if you are under 20 years old
- Avoid smoking and smoky areas
When to contact a clinician
- Have trouble breathing or swallowing
- Have white or yellow patches on your tonsils
- Have a sore throat lasts more than seven days
- Had close physical contact with someone diagnosed with strep recently, and you have symptoms concerning for strep
- Have a skin rash and a sore throat
- Have enlarged lymph nodes that last for more than seven days